Small RNAs (sRNAs) are ubiquitously found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. They are short, non-coding RNA molecules ranging in size between 50 and 300 nucleotides shown to be critical regulators of normal development and physiology, which play important roles in cellular processes such as cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. There has been evidence that small RNAs released in the gut contribute to shaping the gut microbiota, while on the other hand, microbiota modulates host microRNA expression, which could regulate host gene expression in an interplay pattern. Apart from that, bacterial small RNAs may also play a role in pathogenesis to the host bodies. For instance, Escherichia coli sRNAs are involved in modulation of tolerance to multiple factors and the expression of virulence factors; Salmonella typhimurium sRNAs are responsible for supporting virulence regulation, replication, secretion, and cell adhesion. These striking discoveries indicate that commensal bacteria are essential for human gastrointestinal homeostasis, immune system development, and preventing infections by bacterial pathogens that cause disease.
The most commonly studied small RNAs include the following categories:
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), generally found in plants, animals and some viruses, are small non-coding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, which are abundant in human cells and appear to target about 60% of the genes.
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), a class of small RNAs of 21–35 nucleotides in length, form RNA-protein complexes which are mostly involved in the epigenetic and post-transcriptional silencing of transposons and other repeat-derived transcripts, and they can also be involved in the regulation of other genetic elements in germline cells. Evidence has shown that abnormal expression of piRNAs is associated with many kinds of disease including cancer.
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), also known as short interfering RNAs or silencing RNAs, are a class of double-stranded RNA molecules of 20-25 base pairs. siRNAs are active in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway by interfering with the expression of specific genes with complementary nucleotide sequences by degrading mRNA after transcription, preventing translation.
Creative Proteomics provides assistance to tract small RNAs including microRNA (miRNA), piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) base on advanced technologies including next-generation sequencing and microarray. With the merits of high-throughput, high-resolution and high-precision, our platform is capable of providing accurate and abundant data of multiple small RNAs of interest, from which our experts will present you the delicate analysis report.
To find out more about our small RNA profiling services to meet your specific needs, please feel free to contact us.
*For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.
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